Un Agreement Agenda 21

Other mechanisms for implementing the Agenda 21 goals include the Programme for Further Implementation of Action 21 (1997), the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) (also known as the International Development Goals in 2000) and the Johannesburg Implementation Plan (2002). The Millennium Development Goals are a compiled version of the agenda items set out at international conferences and summits in the 1990s, including Rio`s Agenda 21. These goals were set at the United Nations Millennium Conference in New York to boost efforts to meet the needs of the world`s poorest people. The Millennium Development Goals provide a common framework for measuring development progress and encourage those involved in the UN system to cooperate in a coherent manner. The targets are grouped into eight categories and contain several quantitative indicators to be achieved by the 2015 target date. Goals include (1) eradicating extreme poverty and hunger; (2) to achieve general primary education; (3) promoting gender equality and strengthening the role of women; (4) reduction in child mortality; (5) improved maternal health; fighting HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; (7) Ensuring environmental sustainability; and (8) to develop a global partnership for development. In Missoula, Mount., police had to be called to calm a government meeting in December 2012, during which about $1,200 in fees were discussed for ICLEI. In Albemarle County, Va., in 2012, the Board of Directors suspended maturing payments to ICLEI and also withdrew its support for a national climate change agreement. In Springboro, Ohio, Community City School District in 2013, the ACLU threatened to take action when officials proposed a “controversial thematic policy” requiring sustainable development students to read Agenda 21 conspiracy theories. Dyck (1998) suggests that sustainability is a concept that challenges the dominant theory of planning, since planning comes first and foremost from a modernist social context.

From this perspective, modernity has associated growth or development with increased resource use, a trickle-down economy and “expert” planning. However, very few planners support a modernist vision in the new millennium, and even the World Bank seems to subscribe to basic ideas on how sustainable development should now be envisaged (Leitmann 1999). Areas in which agreement is emerging include the need for new, more holistic planning frameworks and Community-sensitive planning processes. In Arizona, for example, a bill dictated that the state could not “adopt or implement the profession of faith, the doctrine or principles or principles” of Agenda 21, and prohibited it from “implementing programs, being a member, receiving them, providing financial services or other forms of assistance to a large number of organizations with sustainable development plans, including the Council of the President of Sustainable Development. In Carroll County, MD., the county`s five commissionaires were removed from office to support the plan. In Missoula, Mount., police had to be called in to quell a riot over the payment of taxes to an organization that was to help implement the organization. And in Albemarle County, Va., the board of directors stopped paying these taxes and even withdrew from a corresponding national agreement. The results of the UNCED summit, also known as the Earth Summit, were Agenda 21 – an environmental action plan; the Rio Declaration on The Environment and Development – a set of principles that define the rights and duties of states; Forest management principles – a set of principles that underpin sustainable forest management around the world; the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) – an agreement on the climate convention that later led to the Kyoto Protocol and the Convention of Nations

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